Passive Solar Design
In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design or climatic design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it doesn't involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices.
The key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate. Elements to be considered include window placement and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, and shading. Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be adapted or "retrofitted".
Energy modeling, or simulation, is the practice of using computer-based programs to model the energy performance of an entire building or the systems within a building. This whole-building modeling
provides valuable information about the building and system energy use as well
as operating costs.
Whole-building simulation is typically performed for an entire year using typical meteorological year weather data. An important aspect of whole-building modeling is that it accounts for the interaction between different elements of
the building, such as the impact of lighting on space conditioning loads or the impact of daylighting on electrical lighting loads. The impact of different building uses and occupancy patterns is also accounted for.
Daylighting is the controlled admission of natural light—direct sunlight and diffuse skylight—into a building to reduce electric lighting and saving energy. By providing a direct link to the dynamic and perpetually evolving patterns of outdoor illumination, daylighting helps create a visually stimulating and productive environment for building occupants, while reducing as much as one-third of total building energy costs.
The science of daylighting design is not just how to provide enough daylight to an ccupied space, but how to do so without any undesirable side effects. Beyond adding windows or skylights to a space, it involves carefully balancing heat gain and loss, glare control, and variations in daylight vailability. For example, successful daylighting designs will carefully consider the use of shading devices to reduce glare and excess contrast in the workspace.
Thermal comfort is the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation(ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55).
Maintaining this standard of thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures is one of the important goals of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) design engineers. Thermal comfort is affected by hea conduction, convection, radiation, an evaporative heat loss. Thermal comfort is maintained when the heat generated by human metabolism is allowed to dissipate, thus maintaining thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. It has been long recognized that the sensation of feeling hot or cold is not just dependent on air temperature alone. Thermal comfort calculations according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55  can be freely performed with the CBE Thermal Comfort Tool for ASHRAE-55.
Rain Water Harvesting
Rainwater harvesting provides an independent water supply during regional
water restrictions, and in developed countries is often used to supplement the
mains supply. Part of the appeal is that rainwater harvesting systems are easy
to understand, install and operate. They are effective in 'green droughts' by capturing water from rainfall events where runoff is insufficient to flow into dam storages. The quality of captured rainwater is usually sufficient for most household needs, reducing the need for detergents because rainwater is soft. Financial benefits to the user include that rain is 'renewable' at acceptable volumes despite climate change forecasts, and rainwater harvesting systems
generally have low running costs, providing water at the point of consumption
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is a voluntary,
consensus-based, market-driven program that provides third-party verification of green buildings. From individual buildings and homes, to entire neighborhoods and communities, LEED is transforming the way built environments are designed, constructed, and operated. Comprehensive and flexible, LEED addresses the entire lifecycle of a building LEED projects have been successfully established in 135 countries. International projects, those outside the United States, make up more than 50% of the total LEED registered square footage. LEED unites us in a single global community and provides regional solutions, while recognizing local realities.